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/etc/shadow file stores actual password in encrypted format for user’s account with additional properties related to user password /etc/shadow File techwithguru: $2gsdhghj2&ghj$kjh9&njsdj:15106:0:99999:7::: User name : It is your login name Password: It your encrypted password. The password should be minimum 6-8 characters long including special characters/digits Last password change (lastchanged): Days Continue Reading


In Ubuntu; Hitting CTRL-ALT-DELETE on most Linux distributions will start the soft reboot process. Ubuntu: This operation is controlled via a special file located at /etc/event.d/control-alt-delete directory. Simply open this file using a text editor: sudo vi /etc/event.d/control-alt-delete OR sudo gedit /etc/event.d/control-alt-delete Find line that read as follows: exec /sbin/shutdown Continue Reading

lspci is a command for displaying information about all PCI buses in the system and all devices connected to them. sudo lspci Output : It is a good idea to run update-pciids command to fetches the current version of the pci.ids file from the primary distribution site and installs it. You Continue Reading

Ubuntu Server has no GUI, but you can install it additionally. Simply login with the user you created during installation and install the Desktop. Install desktop Environment First you nee to make sure you have enabled Universe and multiverse repositories in /etc/apt/sources.list file once you have enable you need to use the following command to install GUI. sudo Continue Reading